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Model of skeletal muscle cramp and its reversal
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Reproducible Model

Published: 2020-08-28
Last edited: 2020-09-01

Model of skeletal muscle cramp and its reversal

Tasaki, K. , Noble, P. J. ORCID logo , Garny, A. ORCID logo , Shorten, P. R. ORCID logo , Afshar, N. ORCID logo , Noble, D. ORCID logo

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To cite this Physiome article, cite the whole collection at the DOI: 10.36903/physiome.12871364, and the Primary Publication at the DOI: https://doi.org/10.36903/physiome.12885590.

All Physiome articles are published as a collection containing the manuscript as a PDF file and the model implementation as an OMEX file.

Primary Publication: Incorporation of sarcolemmal calcium transporters into the shorten et al (2007) model of skeletal muscle: equations, coding and stability. 2019, P. Noble, A. Garny, P. Shorten, K. Tasaki, N. Afshar, and D. Noble

Abstract: In an accompanying paper [2], we developed the Shorten [3] model of skeletal muscle by incorporating equations such as surface calcium fluxes. In further research in this paper, we succeeded in reproducing muscle cramp, as well as its prevention and reversal, by investigating muscle contraction and cramp, in which calcium regulatory networks are involved, using the extended model in comparison with the original model. Incorporation of data from a traditional medicine from root extracts of paeony and licorice and one of its pure chemicals was modeled. The sensitivity analysis of the extended model shows the robustness of the calcium regulatory networks. Muscle cramp, in the extended model, requires calcium influx via the L-type calcium channel and it will not occur without calcium influx. Reduced calcium influx can delay or prevent cramp. Increased interstitial potassium is implicated in developing and maintaining cramp. Mechanism of reversal of cramp requires wash-out of extracellular potassium via increased blood flow, followed by calcium efflux via sodium-calcium exchange. This paper shows the first successful quantitative electrophysiological and mechanical model of cramp and of its reversal.


1. Incorporation of sarcolemmal calcium transporters into the Shorten et al (2007) model of skeletal muscle: equations, coding and stability. Journal: IUPS Physiome. Noble, PJ and Garny, A and Shorten, PR and Tasaki, KM and Afshar, N and Noble, D. Year: 2019.
2. A mathematical model of fatigue in skeletal muscle force contraction. Journal: Journal of muscle research and cell motility. Shorten, Paul R and O’Callaghan, Paul and Davidson, John B and Soboleva, Tanya K. Volume: 28. Year: 2007.
3. Immediate effect of Shakuyaku-kanzo-to on muscle cramp in hemodialysis patients. Journal: Nephron Clinical Practice. Hyodo, Toru and Taira, Takayasu and Takemura, Toru and Yamamoto, Sumiko and Tsuchida, Mayumi and Yoshida, Kazunari and Uchida, Toyoaki and Sakai, Tadasu and Hidai, Hideo and Baba, Shiro. Volume: 104. Year: 2006.
4. Prevalence of cramps in patients over the age of 60 in primary care: a cross sectional study. Journal: BMC family practice. Maisonneuve, Hubert and Chambe, Juliette and Delacour, Chlo{\'e} and Muller, Joris and Rougerie, Fabien and Haller, Dagmar M and Leveque, Michel. Volume: 17. Year: 2016.
5. Exercise-Associated Muscle Cramps. Sports Health. Journal: Sports Health 2 (4): 279--283. Miller, KC and Stone, MS and Huxel, KC and Edwards, JE. Year: 2010.
6. A general population survey of rest cramps. Journal: Age and ageing. Naylor, JR and Young, JB. Volume: 23. Year: 1994.
7. Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on potassium kinetics and performance in human skeletal muscle. Journal: The Journal of physiology. Nielsen, Jens Jung and Mohr, Magni and Klarskov, Christina and Kristensen, Michael and Krustrup, Peter and Juel, Carsten and Bangsbo, Jens. Volume: 554. Year: 2004.
8. Action by Shakuyaku-kanzo-to (SKT) and one of its Chemical Components, Glycyrrhetic acid (GA), on Calcium Influx through L-type Calcium Channel. Journal: The FASEB Journal. Noble, Denis and Sam, Cynthia and Tasaki, Kazuyo Maria. Volume: 30. Year: 2016.
9. Actions of a multi-component medication, SKT, on skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle. Journal: Physiological Society Proceedings 34 PC024. Sam C, Terrar D, Tasaki KM & Noble D.. Year: 2016.

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